|Temporary closure of Stone and Golden Galleries|
|8:30am||Doors open for sightseeing|
|4:00pm||Last entry for sightseeing|
You can also watch sermons online.
For details of preachers please see our service schedule.
One of the other great writers of the twentieth century once said that we are most God-like when we are being creative.29 October 2017
Focusing on the reign of Elizabeth I, The Reverend Rosemary Morton discusses the Queen's love of music and the rise of some of England's most famous choral composers during her reign, adding: "this music isn't just a relic, it's a living tradition."22 October 2017
Focusing on the reign of Queen Mary, Canon Charlotte Methuen explores the religious changes under Mary and whether she is deserving of her poor reputation.15 October 2017
The Precentor considers the difference between confidence and certainty in our faith and how we might leave ourselves open to God's grace.
Focusing on King Edward VI, Canon Michael Hampel explores the changes made to the liturgy, with services said in English rather than Latin and the construction of the Book of Common Prayer.08 October 2017
The Chaplain looks at how Henry Frances Lyte's sermons can help us trust in God and to hold fast to hope and the promises God made to us.
Looking specifically at King Henry VIII, The Reverend Daniel Sandham looks at the changes made during his reign - political as well as religious - and says he finds it hard to 'celebrate' Henry's reign, despite it 'giving birth to so much we hold dear in the Anglican tradition'.01 October 2017
Looking specifically at King Henry VII, Andrew Carwood discusses some of the music of the Reformation as well as looking at where we are today, 500 years on. He ends asking if we have learned the lessons of the Reformation.24 September 2017
The Dean looks at and questions the human search for longer life, saying "it's not survival after death that Christians seek: it's a quality of life and love that begins now and that death cannot destroy."17 September 2017
The Chaplain considers the nourishment of the Eucharist and that 'fullness is not achieved by trying to avoid stuff but by getting stuck in and getting our hands dirty'.10 September 2017
The Canon Pastor explores the feeling of resentment and how we might deal with our own resentment.03 September 2017
The Canon Pastor reflects on the meaning of repentance and the opportunity it creates for change, for opening up possibilities, rather than closing them down.27 August 2017
The Precentor looks at the changing nature of the Church of England and says "that a total immersion by the Church of itself in the secular hinterland of its buildings, without judgment and without membership criteria, will be a new baptism for the Church and restore it to the confidence it once had in simply being at the heart of the community regardless of anything and anyone."20 August 2017
The Canon Pastor explains that through the expansiveness of God, we are all connected, and asks us to learn to talk, listen and walk together.13 August 2017
The Chaplain calls us to 'place into God’s hands and to take into prayer and deep contemplation' those things we find challenging, those where hope seems to have died, or where we struggle to stay above water.
The Canon Pastor reflects on the importance of using words that 'might be good, just, useful and pleasure giving' and the need for using these words in our world.06 August 2017
On the Transfiguration of Our Lord, the Dean encourages us to 'take time this week to be still with God, to discover in the cloud the God who cannot be grasped, but who we pray will grasp us, and in Jesus lead us home.'11 July 2017
The Bishop of Southwark remembers Maurice Sills RIP, a man 'full of faith, hope and love...and unfailing cheerfulness'.02 July 2017
On the Third Sunday after Trinity, the Chancellor calls us to 'look and love...To be attentive and to believe that your life may be for others as well as yourself.'18 June 2017
The Chaplain reflects on the confession of sins and says: 'If we have the courage to look ourselves in the eye and the honesty and humility to acknowledge our shortcomings, recognising where we might be able to work on avoiding falling into Sin, perhaps we might find that, through God’s grace and mercy and love, we are being made perfect bit by bit.'
The Precentor reflects on the call to leadership and says: 'the Church has such an enormous, and enormously exciting, part to play in the call for action, in the drawing together of society, in the building up of community, in the political interference that makes change happen, in the recognising of shared responsibility, and in the challenging leadership that sheep without shepherds need.'11 June 2017
On Trinity Sunday, the Chaplain explains that "no more so than now, when our communities are fractured and fractious, can the harmony of the dynamic Triune God encourage and enable us to build relationships between people, to draw others into relationship with us and to allow ourselves to be drawn into relationship with others, particularly those who don’t reflect our familiar world view but challenge us with theirs to broaden and enrich ours."
The Precentor reflects on Dorothy L. Sayers' analogy of the Trinity and that06 June 2017
Reflecting on the recent terrorist attacks in Manchester, London and Minya, Egypt, the Dean tells us: 'In the power of Jesus Christ, do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.'04 June 2017
On the Day of Pentecost The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at "the overflowing love of God through the Holy Spirit", just hours after an attack in nearby Southwark left seven dead and many more injured.
On the day of Pentecost The Reverend Rosemary Morton looks at the power of the Holy Spirit and says "the purpose of the Holy Spirit is not merely to make us feel better but to shake us up and urge us to action. The arrival of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost is not subtle or fragile or polite, but forceful like the rush of a violent wind."28 May 2017
Reflecting on the end of Eastertide and the cycle of the church's seasons, the Chaplain reminds us that although "the days between Ascension and Pentecost are set aside as days of prayer that we might be refreshed in the Holy Spirit...we don’t have to wait for any of it...for now is eternal life."24 May 2017
The Dean looks at the work of the OBE and those who have received honours over 100 years, saying "Jesus Christ reminds us that honour is due, not to those who think highly of themselves, but to those who think highly of others."14 May 2017
The Dean reminds us of the need to 'stop and listen for the voice of God that tells us when we’re being inhuman: and rather than reaching for the nearest stone or insult to throw, reach for love and forgiveness instead'.
Remembering Choristers of St Paul's who fell in World War One, the Dean of Windsor says that although this 'confronts us with the fact that life can seem hopelessly unfair and tragic...Nor yet, however, do we deny that frequently the very music that they sang can take us to that silence which is the brink of faith; faith that all shall be well, and all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well.'07 May 2017
As Christian Aid Week approaches, Loretta Minghella reminds us that "we can, like Christ, rise above the dividing walls between tribes and in our own hearts. As we show love without partiality to all those in need, we follow in the footsteps of Christ."16 April 2017
At the Easter Day Sung Eucharist, the Reverend Canon Mark Oakley says "death is dead and hope has taken his place...make this day the beginning of your new life."13 April 2017
As the clergy of the Diocese gather at St Paul's to renew their ordination vows, the acting Bishop of London says 'as we reconnect ourselves to the apostolic task of the ordained ministry and the ministry of all the baptised we can ask the Holy Spirit to free, enable and equip us for that task together'.31 March 2017
The Bishop of Southwark preaches at the annual service of the livery companies of the city of London.19 March 2017
The Dean reminds us that the season of Lent recalls our attention to reality and to being ruthlessly honest about ourselves . . . and to the possibility of being surprised and being changed by God.05 March 2017
Simon Woodman considers how different life would be if he ruled the world, and how selfless power, as seen in the life of Jesus, is what makes the real difference.01 March 2017
The Chaplain has yet to see a child dressed as Jesus for World Book Day.
The Chancellor recalls a visit to Auschwitz and how it reminds us that the Ash of Ash Wednesday is a reminder to us of both our mortality and our dependence upon God, the only true hope in the ruins and also a reminder of spiritual life which is concerned with how to live a full life, not an empty one.26 February 2017
The Dean asks, "What do you and I live for? And what would we be willing to die for?", and explains that "Understanding with the head what faith is about is important, but not as important as following with the heart."12 February 2017
The Precentor emphasises the importance of being inspired by the love of God in Christ.29 January 2017
How do we really treat each other? The Dean consider human rights in a fast-changing world.22 January 2017
The Succentor says "Our strength is in our unity and together we must stand, united, in the face of fear and hatred."08 January 2017
Dress cute, wherever you go. Life’s too short to blend in, says the Chaplain.25 December 2016
Rejoice at Christmas as a subversive act against the world's darkness, says the Dean.20 December 2016
Trees inside – whoever heard of such a thing?04 December 2016
The text of the Anthem sung by the Choir tonight was written around 1340. We don’t know who wrote it but it was most probably written in Ludlow, a market town in my own home county of Shropshire. It was set to music by the composer Arnold Bax, who was himself a poet and author. We heard it sung in the original form of English it was composed in, so let me try and translate it a little into something like the English we speak today:27 November 2016
On Advent Sunday, the Precentor challenges each of us to 'Know Thyself'.20 November 2016
The Precentor considers of the dark theology of the end of time which is associated with this final scene in the drama of the Christian year.13 November 2016
Canon Michael considers remembrance, freedom, and recent world events06 November 2016
The Very Reverend John Arnold considers the life of Bishop David Jenkins, who said "God is, as he is in Jesus; so there is hope".
The Precentor considers the Kingdom Season (the Sundays before Advent), and what it means for us - both liturgically and practically - as we prepare for Advent and for Christmas.30 October 2016
The Chaplain looks at Zacchaeus - is he the model disciple?28 October 2016
‘To clasp our hands in prayer is the beginning of an uprising against the disorder of the world’.10 October 2016
The final sermon in the Out of the Ashes series marking the 350th anniversary of the Great Fire of London is a challenge for Christians today, when humanitarian aid is not enough to help refugees09 October 2016
'I cannot fathom out why we can’t see each other as human beings. If we are cut, we all bleed the same.’
There is an urgency in our gospel reading – don’t wait, don’t leave it too late…until all is barred and locked up for the night – it will be no use then standing outside, knocking and claiming all kinds of familiarity with the householder.11 September 2016
As part of the 'Out of the Ashes' Sermon Series, the Revd Philippa Turner considers 9/11 and it's aftermath, and the breadth of God’s love and mercy – in seeking us until we are found.09 September 2016
'This new work Mary brings a woman into the heart chamber of this space, a woman who may not have the strength of the battle field but who had the strength of a mother...'04 September 2016
Bishop Richard looks at the resilience of St Paul’s Cathedral – and London - Out of the Ashes.25 August 2016
What is it that brings you to the Eucharist, to the celebration of Holy Communion?21 July 2016
18 July 2016
Moving on after the EU Referendum requires an understanding of true strength, explains St Paul's Sacrist.01 July 2016
On the 100th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme, Canon Michael looks at the power of art amid the horror of war24 June 2016
When fear drives us, we separate ourselves from those we see as 'other', says Canon Tricia22 May 2016
We know how the world came into being - the Bishop of Kensington asks why24 April 2016
Canon Mark looks at the call offered by Jesus as Word as we celebrate one of the great men of words - Shakespeare23 April 2016
Revd Prebendary Alan Green stands up for Saint George and reminds us of London’s long history of welcoming refugees.17 April 2016
Facts, faith and trust - the Dean considers how we make decisions27 March 2016
What’s been your experience in one way or another of having your own world changed for ever? The Dean asks.
We will find God somewhere - everywhere - says Canon Michael20 March 2016
Ancient shrines and Coca-Cola signs: Canon Michael stresses how the Passion is contemporary
The pilgrim Egeria helps Revd James Milne discover God afresh - she's his Saint for our Day15 March 2016
The Dean asks: How's your Lenten disciple going?14 March 2016
Canon Michael stresses the importance of listening to people's stories01 March 2016
When Canon Mark grows up, he wants to be just a little like bit like his Saint for our Day - Desmond Tutu25 February 2016
Dolly Parton's authenticity makes Canon Tricia ask - what do we mean by 'saint'?23 February 2016
The Dean examines violence in our culture - and our lives15 February 2016
CS Lewis - why his writing and life inspire the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral10 February 2016
God knows us all by name, notes Canon Tricia - including people in a 'swarm'03 February 2016
What does it mean for the Church to live as a community of love, asks Revd Rosemary Morton
Canon Tricia considers moments that define our lives - in a world of light and dark29 January 2016
A powerful message from Canon Philippa - everyone has a part to play in seeing Christ in other people17 January 2016
The Dean looks at how the generous love of Jesus impacts lives25 December 2015
It’s a great occasion, being here, isn’t it? It’s a special service, says the Dean ...21 December 2015
The mystery of the Virgin Birth can't be explained in Just A Minute, says Revd Michael Hampel20 December 2015
The Virgin Mary, the Virgin Queen and the story of salvation - visiting preacher Revd Antony Hodgson reflects on the significance of Mary14 December 2015
So many stewards, roles old and new - but we can't do everything, says Rev Canon Michael Hampel08 December 2015
Where are the Church’s modern prophets calling on the western world to drop clean water, food, schools and internet access – instead of bombs? asks Revd Michael Hampel.30 November 2015
What to make of the rule of God in a world of terrorist atrocities? Revd Tricia Hillas sees victories won by fear as short-lived.16 November 2015
If your God is compassionate and merciful, how can you act with neither compassion nor mercy? The Dean reflects on religious violence.10 November 2015
The Dean issues an invitation to stop being ordinary and get in touch with the spirit of Remembrance02 November 2015
The Revd James Milne considers martyrs, saints and a lively children's party.12 October 2015
The Dean of St Paul's looks at two inspirational women and asks - 'What is your motto in life?'06 September 2015
The Reverend Canon Tricia Hillas looks at what makes us angry and grace in relation to the story of the prophet Jonah.
The Reverend Canon Tricia Hillas looks at the refugee crisis, giving us practical ways how we can help.23 August 2015
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at Jesus as the 'Son of Man' and says "it’s ordinary human faithfulness and endeavour which defeat tyranny and death".16 August 2015
The Reverend Rosemary Morton looks at the story of Jonah and the whale and says "perhaps we are more like Jonah than we like to admit."09 August 2015
The Reverend James Milne looks at how worship transforms us and says "let us dedicate ourselves anew faithfully and constantly to offer worship to the one who made and sustains us, that God’s great act of creation may continue in our lives."
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the tensions of being a Christian in the wealthy West and says: "we may struggle with the instruction to give away all that we have and go follow Jesus but we could surely manage giving away a tenth or at least setting it as a tentative goal towards which to work."02 August 2015
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the migrants in Calais and says "I believe very strongly in the shared responsibility of all human beings for everything which happens in this world".
The Reverend Christine McSpadden looks at the language of love and says "the church becomes a bit squeamish" when talking about sexual love.12 July 2015
The Reverend Canon Tricia Hillas look at prisoners of conscience and says: "God is for us – and stands ready to bring hope and power, yes even into the sorriest prison cell."08 July 2015
The Very Reverend Philip Buckler preaches at the Festival of the Friends of St Paul's05 July 2015
In the week in which we remember the 10th anniversary of the London bombings, the Dean looks at the 'power of imitation' and says "may we imitate the power of love we see in Christ, to live not for evil, but for good."
The Reverend Canon Tricia Hillas looks at talking and listening, and says "Something terrible begins when we seek to silence one another."14 June 2015
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the Church and the State and says: "God is Lord of all creation – not just of the religious people."
The Very Reverend David Ison looks at the modern mantra of 'choice' and says "God chooses us: and asks us to choose God in return."07 June 2015
The Reverend Susie Simpson looks at those locked away in prison and says "our mission as chaplains is to help them to believe that they can start a new life...No matter how many times they fall, we return to them and encourage them to pick themselves up and try again."
The Reverend Christine McSpadden looks at people who are spiritual but won't accept religion, and says: "This isn’t surprising. I don’t think the church, on the whole, has done a great job lately of showing Jesus to the world."24 May 2015
The Very Reverend David Ison looks at the idea of equality and, on Pentecost Sunday says "God shows no partiality and is available to all"14 May 2015
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the power of words and on Ascension Day says "without the resurrection, our faith is naught. Without the ascension, our faith is hidebound."10 May 2015
The Reverend Canon Mark Oakley looks at the Christians of Laodicea in relation to the recent General Election and says "if we as Christians fail to step up to the debates...we will be the church of St Laodicea."03 May 2015
The Reverend Canon Alison Joyce looks at the amazing victory of Christ over the powers of death and destruction and tells us what it means to strive to live the Christian life.26 April 2015
The Reverend Christine McSpadden looks at want and says 'God provides. Enough. Every day...And that is more than enough.'12 April 2015
The Reverend Christine McSpadden looks at hope against hope and says at this Easter time "we glimpse the eternal in us and in our world".05 April 2015
The Very Reverend David Ison looks at The Soldier, the poem of Rupert Brooke mentioned in the Dean of St Paul's Easter Day sermon of 1915.
The Reverend Canon Tricia Hillas looks at the sorrow of Jesus' followers on this day of celebration for Christians and says that however bright the light of Easter shines within us, it is enough.02 April 2015
The Reverend Canon Tricia Hillas looks at the Jewish ghettos of the Second World War and Jesus's betrayal and arrest on Maundy Thursday.22 March 2015
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the heightened tension of Passiontide saying it is a time "when we focus on Jesus’ death so that we can all the more celebrate his life in two weeks’ time."20 March 2015
The Right Reverend Nicholas Holtam looks at the work of the United Guilds in London.01 March 2015
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the persecution of Christians around the world and the upcoming UK election, saying: "If the only way we can take up our cross right now is to use our faith, our intelligence and our vote to campaign for the Kingdom of God, it is a start."15 February 2015
The Reverend Prebendary Duncan Ross talks about the challenges we face at Lent and says: "Lent is not just about us and our failings, but about daring to open ourselves to the living God."
The Reverend Dr Gregory Platten discusses the importance of silence and says: "Silence is powerful because it is of God, it is divine."08 February 2015
The Very Reverend David Ison looks at worship and power - not God’s power over us, but the power God gives to us.01 February 2015
The Reverend Marjorie Brown talks about Candlemas and how it reminds us of birth and death, and how they are connected, and of God’s faithfulness at both the beginning and the end of our lives.11 January 2015
The Reverend Will Adam looks at the terror attacks that gripped France in early January 2015, then looking at the Baptism if Christ, which he says "brings about a transformation".04 January 2015
The Reverend Canon Mark Oakley discusses the idea of strangers - from Paddington Bear to Jesus - and concludes that the stranger is not the enemy.28 December 2014
On the Feast of the Holy Innocents, The Very Reverend David Ison looks at innocence, concluding 'this day of commemoration of the innocent challenges those of us with power to repent of the ways in which we ourselves abuse the innocent to make ourselves feel better'.25 December 2014
The Very Reverend David Ison preaches on Christmas Day.14 December 2014
In the second of a special series of sermons entitled Advent: a world turned upside-down, The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel discusses Investing in one another in a world of self-promotion07 December 2014
The Very Reverend David Ison looks at fairness, concluding "God doesn’t do ‘fair’: but God is just, and kind."
In the first of a special series of sermons entitled Advent: a world turned upside-down, The Reverend Canon Mark Oakley looks at Patience in a world of impatience.16 November 2014
The Reverend Guy Treweek looks at risk and fear and concludes 'Our faith journey is impossible on our own'.
Heather Richardson speaks at the Barts Service of Remembrance.26 October 2014
The Reverend Sarah Eynstone looks at the idea of self-worth in society through the story of Jesus' account of the wedding feast to the Pharisee.12 October 2014
The Very Reverend David Ison asks 'do you like hearing stories?' and tells us that 'everyone is welcome to God’s table'.
The Reverend Aidan Platten discusses the rise of social media and the friendships formed there, but says 'the most sustaining relationships are those that are incarnational'.28 September 2014
21 September 2014
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel, reveals his favourite Bible story - about the evil tax collector Zacchaeus - and discusses how Matthew the Apostle had also been a 'wicked' tax collector.
14 September 2014
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at sites of Christian worship, notably the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, but concludes that all churches are 'made holy more by prayer than by any artefacts or antecedents'.
In the second of a series looking focusing on William Shakespeare's 450th birthday, Canon Mark Oakley, discusses 'Shakespeare, Tragedy and the Christian: Not in our Stars, but in Ourselves'.07 September 2014
31 August 2014
17 August 2014
10 August 2014
03 August 2014
27 July 2014
The Very Reverend David Ison asks 'what do you think about the devil?'13 July 2014
The Reverend Canon Tricia Hillas discusses 'Scarcity and Sufficiency'15 June 2014
The Reverend Prebendary Douglas Dettmer askes:08 June 2014
29 May 2014
The Right Reverend Christopher Herbert (Bishop of St Albans, 1996-2009) discusses the Beauty of God.18 May 2014
The Right Reverend Tom Butler (Bishop of Southwark. 1998-2010) describes an alternative to the current Anglican Covenant and concludes 'it might not be the new Jerusalem...but...it might be a decent suburb of it'.14 May 2014
The Reverend Canon Tricia Hillas discusses 'h11 May 2014
04 May 2014
The Right Reverend John Gladwin (Bishop of Chelmsford, 2004-2009) looks at the position of the Church in society and says "the Church has a rich and unrivalled resource in its faith and history for making a vital and critical contribution."27 April 2014
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the difficulty we face in proving God's existence and concludes 'I have received too much evidence that Jesus is the Messiah to have the luxury now to deny it'.20 April 2014
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at gratitude and says that we should all 'resolve to be more grateful to God and more affirming of each other.'17 April 2014
On Maundy Thursday, The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at leadership and says it is 'not about crowns and coronets but about towels and basins'06 April 2014
How well do you get on with your family, friends and neighbours?04 April 2014
How do you choose your Master, Prime Warden or Upper Bailiff? Or your Lord Mayor? And how much does it matter who gets chosen? Is it simply about seniority and willingness, and ability to wear gorgeous robes and big hats with dignity? Or is our capacity to lead, our ability to enable others, at the heart of the office which we hold?16 March 2014
'Counting the Cost'09 March 2014
The Country and Western singer Mac Davis may not be a household name but his song 'O Lord it's hard to be humble05 March 2014
04 March 2014
02 March 2014
'Don't do something – just sit there'23 February 2014
The Very Reverend David Ison looks at the different ways we approach our lives and concludes that that 'God looks to the good of the whole and sees us as a creation to be loved rather than a problem to be solved'.16 February 2014
09 February 2014
02 February 2014
26 January 2014
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at prophecy and testimony and concludes that they are the 'vehicles whereby divine and human encounter one another'.19 January 2014
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at truth and revelation and concludes 'God has been in the business of revelation from the beginning of the world'.05 January 2014
29 December 2013
22 December 2013
The Very Reverend David Ison looks at Heaven and says 'Heaven starts now by building our relationship with God in Jesus Christ through prayer, worship and service.'15 December 2013
The Very Reverend David Ison discusses hell and says 'God is not Mr Nice or Mr Nasty - God is Mr Love.'08 December 2013
The Very Reverend David Ison looks at judgement and says 'it’s learning to judge ourselves truly that’s the basic life skill'.
Christina Rees speaks about the awkwardness of Advent and asks 'as we contemplate the Second Coming, for what am I still waiting and watching?01 December 2013
The Very Reverend David Ison discusses death and says that it is love and relationships that give our life meaning in the face of death.24 November 2013
Samuel 8: 4-20 John 18: 33-3727 November 2012
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at inclusivity, referring to the vote on women bishops and Jesus' representation in Holman Hunt's 'The Light of the World'.
19 November 2012
12 November 2012
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the human quest for life by focusing on the often ignored statue to the Kinder Transport at Liverpool Street Station.08 November 2012
'Shemas and shibboleths'. The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel, Precentor, looks at the 'extraordinary' behaviour of religious people and Jesus' response to the hierarchy of the Commandments.23 October 2012
The Very Reverend Dr David Ison looks at the meaning of the Sabbath, Pharisees and how complex issues can’t be resolved by simply quoting individual texts.16 October 2012
The Right Reverend Michael Colclough looks at Jesus' meeting with a stranger asking how he could inherit eternal life, and how Jesus wanted to love the man into the Kingdon of Heaven, but in the end the important thing was what the man wanted.30 September 2012
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the idea we all go to heaven or hell, and asks, 'is it that simple?'.19 September 2012
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at risk taking under the dome of St Paul's Cathedral and how there is no desire to bury our heads in the sand.17 September 2012
The Reverend Canon Michael Hampel looks at the natural human instinct to take sides, but that 'sitting on the fence' allows people of faith to focus entirely on God.28 August 2012
26 August 2012
Professor Peter McCullough looks at both the